4.   Complex Analysis, Rational and Meromorphic Asymptotics

IV.1 Generating functions as analytic objects

IV.2 Analytic functions and meromorphic functions

IV.3 Singularities and exponential growth of coefficients

IV.4 Closure properties and computable bounds

IV.5 Rational and meromorphic functions

Analytic transfer theorem for rational functions (common case)

If $h(z)$ is a rational function that is analytic at 0 and has a pole $\alpha=1/\beta$ of smallest modulus with multiplicity $M$ which is larger than the multiplicity of all other poles of smallest modulus, then $$[z^n]h(z) \sim c\beta^nn^{M-1}\quad\hbox{where}\quad c = {1\over(M-1)!\alpha^M}\lim_{z\to\alpha} (\alpha - z)^Mh(z).$$

See Theorem IV.9 and Note IV.26 on page 256, noting errors in text listed on Errata page (sorry!).

Example.The number of ways to make change for $n$ cents with pennies, nickels, dimes and quarters is $$[z^n]{1\over(1-z)(1-z^5)(1-z^{10})(1-z^{25})} ~\sim {n^3\over 3!}{1\over 1\cdot 5 \cdot 10 \cdot 25}={n^3\over 7500}$$ because $z=1$ is a pole of multiplicity 4 and $$\lim_{z\to 1}{1-z\over 1-z^t} = \lim_{z\to 1}{1\over 1 + z + z^2 + \ldots + z^{t-1}} = {1\over t}.$$

See Proposition IV.2 on page 258 and Slide 46 in Lecture 5.

With $h(z) = f(z)/g(z)$, another way to calculate the constant is to use l'Hôpital's rule, with the result $$c = M{(-\beta)^Mf(\alpha)\over g^{(M)}(\alpha)}.$$ See slide 30 in Lecture 4 or Theorem 4.1 in Analysis of Algorithms.

IV.6 Localization of singularities

IV.7 Singularities and functional equations

IV.8 Perspective

Selected Exercises

Note IV.28

Supernecklaces. A "supernecklace" of the 3rd type is a labelled cycle of cycles (see page 125). Enumerate all the supernecklaces of the 3rd type of size $n$ for $n$ = 1, 2, and 3. (There are 1, 2, and 7, respectively.) Then develop an asymptotic estimate of the number of supernecklaces of size $n$ by showing that $$[z^n]\ln\Bigl({1\over 1 - \ln{1\over 1-z}}\Bigr)\sim{1\over n}(1-e^{-1})^{-n}.$$ Hint: Take derivatives.

Selected Experiments

Program IV.1

Compute the percentage of permutations having no singelton or doubleton cycles and compare with the asymptotic estimate from analytic combinatorics, for N = 10 and N = 20 .

Program IV.2

Plot the derivative of the GF for supernecklaces of type 3 (see Note IV.28) in the style of the plots in Lecture 4. Click here for access to the Java code in the lecture.

Web Exercises


(D. Luo) Approximately how many ways are there to change $n$ cents in Canada (no pennies)?


(M. Moore) A "supernecklace" of the 1st type is a labelled cycle of sequences (see page 125). Enumerate all the supernecklaces of the 1st type of size $n$ for $n$ = 1, 2, and 3. (There are 1, 3, and 14, respectively.) The construction $S = CYC(SEQ_{>0}(Z))$ immediately leads to the EGF $$S(z) = \ln{1\over 1 - {z\over 1-z}} = \ln{1-z\over 1-2z}.$$ Use this to show that then number of supernecklaces of the 1st type of size $n$ is $\sim (n-1)!2^n$. Hint: Take derivatives.


Suppose that $h(z)$ is a meromorphic function with positive coefficients and that $\alpha$ is a pole of smallest modulus. The table below gives various possibilities for the modulus, multiplicity, and dominance of $\alpha$. For each row, indicate whether the order of growth of $[z^n]h(z)$ is constant, linear, quadratic, exponential, exponentially small, or none of these options.

modulus multiplicity dominant?


(D. Carter) An ultranecklace is a cycle of supernecklaces of type 3. Give a ~-expression for the number of ultrnecklaces of size $N$.


(A. Yan) Give a ~-approximation for $$[z^N]{1\over(1-z)(1-2z)(1-3z)\ldots(1-tz)}$$.